500 Jahre Reformation? Wir gedenken T.Müntzer!

Heute feiert die bürgerliche Welt das 500.Jubiläum der Reformation. Die Reformation war Ausdruck der gesellschaftlichen Veränderungen und der ideologischen Modernisierung des Christentums am Vorabend des Übergangs vom Feudalismus zum Kapitalismus.

Die gesellschaftlich-politischen Lager der Zeit fasste Engels in seinem „Die deutschen Bauenkriege“ so zusammen: „Während sich in dem ersten der drei großen Lager, im konservativ-katholischen, alle Elemente zusammenfanden, die an der Erhaltung des Bestehenden interessiert waren, also die Reichsgewalt, die geistlichen und ein Teil der weltlichen Fürsten, der reichere Adel, die Prälaten und das städtische Patriziat, sammeln sich um das Banner der bürgerlich-gemaßigten lutherischen Reform die besitzenden Elemente der Opposition, die Masse des niederen Adels, die Bürgerschaft und selbst ein Teil der weltlichen Fürsten, der sich durch Konfiskation der geistlichen Güter zu bereichern hoffte und die Gelegenheit zur Erringung größerer Unabhängigkeit vom Reich benutzen wollte. Die Bauern und Plebejer endlich schlossen sich zur revolutionären Partei zusammen, deren Forderungen und Doktrinen am schärfsten durch Müntzer ausgesprochen wurden.

Im Gegensatz zu Luther griff Müntzer auch die soziale Misere der Bauern an und forderte auch eine soziale Freiheit für die Unterdrückten.

Seine politische Doktrin schloß sich genau an diese revolutionäre religiöse Anschauungsweise an und griff ebensoweit über die unmittelbar vorliegenden gesellschaftlichen und politischen Verhältnisse hinaus wie seine Theologie über die geltenden Vorstellungen seiner Zeit. Wie Münzers Religionsphilosophie an den Atheismus, so streifte sein politisches Programm an den Kommunismus, und mehr als eine moderne kommunistische Sekte hatte noch am Vorabend der Februarrevolution über kein reichhaltigeres theoretisches Arsenal zu verfügen als die „Müntzerschen“ des sechzehnten Jahrhunderts. Dies Programm, weniger die Zusammenfassung der Forderungen der damaligen Plebejer als die geniale Antizipation der Emanzipationsbedingungen der kaum sich entwickelnden proletarischen Elemente unter diesen Plebejern – dies Programm forderte die sofortige Herstellung des Reiches Gottes, des prophezeiten Tausendjährigen Reichs auf Erden, durch Zurückführung der Kirche auf ihren Ursprung und Beseitigung aller Institutionen, die mit dieser angeblich urchristlichen, in Wirklichkeit aber sehr neuen Kirche in Widerspruch standen. Unter dem Reich Gottes verstand Münzer aber nichts anderes als einen Gesellschaftszustand, in dem keine Klassenunterschiede, kein Privateigentum und keine den Gesellschaftsmitgliedern gegenüber selbständige, fremde Staatsgewalt mehr bestehen. Sämtliche bestehende Gewalten, sofern sie nicht sich fügen und der Revolution anschließen wollten, sollten gestürzt, alle Arbeiten und alle Güter gemeinsam und die vollständigste Gleichheit durchgeführt werden. Ein Bund sollte gestiftet werden, um dies durchzusetzen, nicht nur über ganz Deutschland, sondern über die ganze Christenheit; Fürsten und Herren sollten eingeladen werden, sich anzuschließen; wo nicht, sollte der Bund sie bei der ersten Gelegenheit mit den Waffen in der Hand stürzen oder töten.

Müntzer setzte sich gleich daran, diesen Bund zu organisieren. Seine Predigten nahmen einen noch heftigeren, revolutionäreren Charakter an; neben den Angriffen auf die Pfaffen donnerte er mit gleicher Leidenschaft gegen die Fürsten, den Adel, das Patriziat, schilderte er in glühenden Farben den bestehenden Druck und hielt dagegen sein Phantasiebild des Tausendjährigen Reichs der sozial-republikanischen Gleichheit. Zugleich veröffentlichte er ein revolutionäres Pamphlet nach dem andern und sandte Emissäre nach allen 3 Richtungen aus, während er selbst den Bund in Allstedt und der Umgegend organisierte.“

Luther tat, was alle Reformisten tun.

„Jetzt, nach der erwähnten revolutionären Broschüre Müntzers, trat Luther öffentlich als Denunziant gegen ihn auf. In seinem gedruckten „Brief an die Fürsten zu Sachsen wider den aufrührerischen Geist“ erklärte er Müntzer für ein Werkzeug des Satans und forderte die Fürsten auf, einzuschreiten und die Anstifter des Aufruhrs zum Lande hinauszujagen, da sie sich nicht begnügen, ihre schlimmen Lehren zu predigen, sondern zum Aufstand und zur gewaltsamen Widersetzlichkeit gegen die Obrigkeit aufrufen.“

Müntzer fordert einen gewaltsamen Umsturz der Verhältnisse und versucht mit seiner Praxis, „die Welt zu verändern“. Als Pfarrer in der Marienkirche, dem Stützpunkt der Aufstände predigt er diesen Umsturz. Im Mai 1925 wird er selbst nach der Schlacht bei Frankenhausen im Zuge der Bauernkriege gefangengenommen, gefoltert und ermordet.

„Da sieht man den Satan umgehn, den Geist aus Allstedt!“ rief Luther. Hier in Nürnberg ließ Müntzer seine Antwort an Luther drucken. Er klagte ihn geradezu an, daß er den Fürsten heuchle und die reaktionäre Partei mit seiner Halbheit unterstütze. Aber das Volk werde trotzdem frei werden, und dem Doktor Luther werde es dann gehen wie einem gefangenen Fuchs.“

Die Bourgeoisie feiert die Reformation und gedenkt dem treuen Luther.

Wir erinnern an den Revolutionären Thomas Müntzer, der mit den Bauern kämpfte und fiel.

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